30 October 2022, Volume 53 Issue 10

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    Focuses & Concerns (The Project of Chongqing Press Fund in 2021)
  • GUO Binglin, GAO Yihao, LI Yongyue, MI Changhua, LYU Xiaojun, LI Meicheng
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10001-10007. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.001
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    The integrated photovoltaic-storage device can convert solar energy into chemical energy for direct storage to achieve the direct use of solar energy. Improving the total energy conversion efficiency is a major research focus. A low internal resistance composite material that is in-situ grown nickel hydroxide nanosheets on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the cathode of supercapacitor and the integrated photovoltaic-storage device was assembled. The discharge specific capacitance of the composite electrode is 1586.4 F/g at 2 A/g and even 1108 F/g at 50 A/g, and the retention rate is as high as 70.0%. The discharge specific capacitance of the nickel hydroxide electrode is 622.8 F/g at 2 A/g and even 304 F/g at 50 A/g, and the retention rate is 48.8%. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of composite electrode is 96.5%, while that of nickel hydroxide electrode is only 48.4% at 2 A/g. Compared with the nickel hydroxide, the composite material has a larger electrode electrolyte interface, which is conducive to the rapid exchange of electrons and protons at the interface. Meanwhile, the electrons can be exported quickly in the charging-discharging process by rGO in electrode, which reduces the internal resistance of the device. The total energy conversion efficiency of 14.21% was obtained by using composite materials in integrated photovoltaic-storage device. It is expected to provide a new direction for the design of energy storage materials for the integrated photovoltaic-storage device.
  • ZHANG Jian, FU Jiwen, LE Yuan, CHEN Jianfeng
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10008-10015. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.002
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    A specific size of natural chrome shaving filler was proposed as the support material for the polyurethane foam layer of synthetic leather to solve the problem of flattening of the foam coating during the drying process. In addition, in the composite coating, chrome shaving will also play the role of water vapor channel and mechanical enhancement. In the preparation process of the composite foam layer, the chrome shaving filler with the similar size as the initial thickness of the foam layer is selected so that it can be supported on the upper and lower sides of the foam layer. After drying, the thickness retention rate of the composite foamed coating reaches 96%, which is 17% higher than that of the pure PU foamed layer. At the same time, the addition of chrome shavings greatly reduces the cell diameter and wall thickness of the coating, reaching 57 μm and 20 μm respectively, which are only 43% and 24% of the pure PU foam layer. When m(chrome shavings)∶m(PU)=1∶8, the water vapor permeability and tensile strength of the finished leather reach 368 mg/10 cm2·24 h and 11.45 MPa, respectively, which is 232% and 85% higher than that of pure foamed PU synthetic leather.
  • CUI Xiangzhong, WANG Weiqiang, YU Fengyun, XU Yanan, QI Min
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10016-10021. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.003
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    The work aims to investigate the feasibility of electrodeposition of Fe-Zn alloy in choline chloride urea deep eutectic solvent (ChCl-Urea DES). The reduction behavior and nucleation behavior of Fe-Zn alloy were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The effects of deposition potential on element content, phase composition and microstructure of Fe-Zn alloy coating were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion behavior of Fe-Zn alloy was studied by polarization curve. The CV curves measured in the electrolyte containing two metal salts showed that Fe (Ⅱ) and Zn (Ⅱ) was able to be co-deposited in ChCl-Urea DES. The fitting results of CA curves showed that the nucleation mode of Fe-Zn alloy conformed to the Scharifker-Hill three-dimensional nucleation model, and the nucleation mechanism was three-dimensional progressive nucleation. The EPMA results showed that the highest content of Zn in the alloy was 7.4% when the deposition potential was -1.35 V. The XRD results showed that Fe-Zn alloy was α-Fe phase at different deposition potentials. The SEM results showed that the alloy grains grew in hemispherical shape at low potential and in irregular clusters at high potential. The results of polarization curves showed that the corrosion current density (Jcorr) of Fe-Zn alloy was greater than that of pure Fe, and the Jcorr of Fe-Zn alloy with Zn content of 4.3% was up to 5.70 μA/cm2. It could be concluded that Fe (Ⅱ) and Zn (Ⅱ) can be co-deposited and form solid solution alloy in ChCl-urea DES, and the corrosion rate of Fe-Zn alloy is faster than that of pure Fe.
  • YANG Zhenyu, SHEN Zihan, XU Guangqing, LYU Jun, CUI Jiewu, WU Yucheng
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10022-10031. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.004
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    N doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation combined with solution processing, and effects of N-doping on photoelectrochemical performances were studied. Surfaces morphologies and phase structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, while the content and distribution of N in TiO2 nanotubes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Chronoamperometry was used for measuring the photoelectrochemical performances under UV light and visible light respectively. Researches on the photoelectrochemical detection to organics were conducted by using TiO2(N) NTAs as photo anode and glucose as model organics. Results show that the photocurrents of all doping samples are increased compared with pristine TiO2 NTAs, in which the UV photocurrent of optimized TiO2(N40) NTAs increases from 180.4 μA to 256.8 μA, the detection sensitivity increases from 0.061 μA/(μmol/L) to 0.134 μA/(μmol/L). The enhancing mechanism of the photoelectrochemical performances are studied by analyzing the optical performances, recombination rate of photogenerated carriers and electrochemical performances. Increase of optical response range and effective separation of photogenerated carriers contribute to the enhancement of N-doping TiO2(N) NTAs' photoelectrochemical performances.
  • HE Shuai, LIU Yuchen, HAN Qiuyang, WANG Shouteng, XIE Kenan, XIE Lu, DENG Yi, YANG Weizhong
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10032-10038. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.005
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    Bone defect caused by trauma, osteomyelitis, and osteosarcoma resection surgery is threatening the patients’ health globally. Currently, implanting orthopedic materials is the mainstream method for repairing bone defects by filling bone defects. However, owing to the poor bactericidal ability, conventional orthopedic implant materials are susceptible to pathogen invasion leading to implant-associated infection (IAI), which would prolong the suffering of patients and cause secondary injury. To cope with this issue, herein, we construct a novel multifunctional implant (Ag@Co/β-TCP) consisting of cobalt metal, silver nanoparticles, and bioceramic beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) through compression shaping and polydopamine-assisted modification for the purpose of antibiotic-free IAI therapy. Owing to the intrinsic germicidal activity of Ag+ and Co2+, Ag@Co/β-TCP implants exhibit excellent anti-bacterial properties against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments demonstrate that Ag@Co/β-TCP displays acceptable biocompatibility and cell growth ability. Accordingly, these merits make the functionalized bioceramic become a promising antibiotic-free anti-bacterial bone implant material for combating the issue of IAI during the implantation process by boosting the anti-bacterial ability of β-TCP.
  • Review & Advance
  • FAN Jichao, WU Xindong, LIU Xiaolin
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10039-10045. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.006
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    Halide perovskite materials stand out in the field of photoelectricity because of their excellent luminescence and variable discoloration luminescence properties, which is mainly due to their diverse phase transition phenomenon of halide perovskites and their derivatives materials. This work focused on the introduction of various phase-transition chromotropic properties of halide perovskite materials, including photochromism, piezochromism and thermochromic properties. The intrinsic phase-transition mechanism of the chromotropic properties induced by various external factors is mainly analyzed. Finally, the future research and application prospects of the chromotropic properties of halide perovskite materials are discussed.
  • TIAN Fang, HU Tu, ZHANG Libo, YANG Li
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10046-10053. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.007
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    As a ceramic material, titanium carbide is widely used because of its good chemical stability and wear resistance. In this paper, combined with the research progress of TiC materials in recent years, various applications and preparation methods of ultrafine TiC powders at home and abroad are briefly described, including carbothermic reduction method, self-propagating high temperature synthesis method, shock wave synthesis method and so on. The principle and process characteristics of various technologies are analyzed and the existing problems are discussed. Economical and effective preparation technology will enable TiC powder to have a broader industrial application prospect.
  • WANG Yanhang, Yang Penghui, LI Xianzi, HAN Tao, ZHANG Yunsheng
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10054-10061. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.008
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    As an important window for photoelectric information transmission with the outside world under high temperature conditions, high temperature resistant transparent materials are mainly used in emerging fields such as spacecraft, missile, high-temperature and high-pressure container and laser. At present, high temperature resistant transparent materials mainly include high temperature resistant organic materials, crystal materials and tempered glass. Tempered glass is the most commonly used high-temperature resistant transparent material at present. Compared with chemical tempered glass, physical tempered glass has higher temperature resistance, but both have the problem of toughened stress attenuation at high temperature. Typical products of tempered glass include physical tempered alkali-free aluminosilicate glass and chemical tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass. Finally, the author looks forward to the development trend of high temperature resistant transparent materials.
  • LYU Zhong, LIU Ziyan, SONG Yihao, XIANG Tengfei, GUO Minglei, CHEN Depeng
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10062-10070. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.009
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    Under loading and environment, the cracking will easily occur and reduces the durability and strength of the structure concrete. Inspired by the capsule-based self-repairing system, a self-healing system of repairing agent to be encapsulated in the porous lightweight aggregates that are used as carriers was proposed. In the paper, the recent progresses of lightweight aggregates self-repairing cementitious materials are reviewed and the rupture mode of inorganic porous lightweight aggregates and the mechanism of repairing agent to be released are described. The mechanical properties and durability of the cementitious matrix are compared before and after the repairing process and the evaluation methods of crack-repairing degree and repairing efficiency are also discussed. Finally, the key problems and the research direction of lightweight aggregate self-repairing cementitious material are summarized.
  • HUANG Ying, LI Yuchuan, LEI Bo, HAO Gangling, WANG Dan, WANG Xinfu
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10071-10086. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.010
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    Al-based particle-reinforced composites have become the focus research around the world due to their unique quality, economic and performance advantages. Powder metallurgy method has the advantages of flexible selection of reinforced particles, accurate and controllable content, and strong designability, which is one of the commonly used methods for preparing particle reinforced Al matrix composites and is favored by many scholars. The present paper firstly gives a brief introduction to the development of Al matrix composites. Secondly, the densification molding technology and sintering process in powder metallurgy process are summarized. Subsequently, the composition design, such as reinforcement type, content, particle size, distribution, etc., interface wettability and its control, the relationship between microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties, and the strengthening mechanism were mainly discussed. Finally, it analyses the problems and challenges faced by powder metallurgical particle-reinforced Al matrix composites and looks forward to their development.
  • ZHANG Jing, LIU Jie
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10087-10094. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.011
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    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new type of nanoporous materials which are composed of metal ions or metal clusters and organic ligands through coordination bonds, have attracted extensive attention in recent years. They have been developed rapidly in environmental analytical chemistry due to their high specific surface area, high porosity, excellent crystallinity and good chemical/thermal stability. In this paper, the synthetic methods and application in adsorption of UiO series metal-organic framework materials are reviewed. The reaction conditions and advantages and disadvantages of the synthetic methods including hydrothermal, micro-assisted synthesis, mechanical grinding, and electrochemical synthesis are introduced. UiO series MOFs, as new adsorption materials, have been widely used in the removal of heavy metal ions, the degradation of organic matter and the adsorption and separation of gas due to their high thermal stability and chemical stability. Meanwhile, the future development trend is prospected of UiO series MOFs, according to the recent research.
  • Research & Development
  • GUAN Jiyuan, LI Duosheng, YE Yin, LONG Sihai, WANG kai
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10095-10103. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.012
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    The traditional epoxy zinc-rich coating releases some harmful substances such as VOC during the service process, which pollutes the environment and causes great harm to people. The waterborne epoxy coating was modified by adding graphene oxide (GO) to improve the anticorrosion of the coating. The structure and morphology of GO were analyzed by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. GO was added into waterborne epoxy coating to prepare GO reinforced waterborne epoxy coating. The surface morphology of the coating was investigated by SEM, and the anticorrosion of the coating was studied by salt spray test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curve in detail. There are hydrophilic oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of GO. GO significantly improve the zinc powder dispersibility of the coating, making the zinc powder distribution of the coating more uniform. The waterborne epoxy coating with 0.3% GO has the least corrosion products on the surface after 240 h of salt spray, which has better anticorrosion. In 3.5% (mass fraction) NaCl solution, those coatings with 0.1wt%-0.4wt% GO have higher impedance modulus than the coating without GO, and when GO is 0.3%, the impedance modulus of the coating is the largest, and it has best anticorrosion. After the coating was immersed in salt solution for 55 days, the impedance modulus (5.64×105 Ω·cm2) of the coating with 0.3% GO was increased up 404.57% compared with that of the coating without GO (1.12×105 Ω·cm2). The polarization curve of the coating shows that the coating without GO has the largest Jcorr (608.5 nA/cm2), the smallest Ecorr(-0.654 V)and Rp(0.074 kΩ·cm2), and the worst corrosion resistance. The coating with 0.3% GO has the largest Ecorr (-0.521 V)and Rp(0.592 kΩ·cm2) and the smallest Jcorr(74.5 nA/cm2), which has the best anticorrosion. The anticorrosion of the waterborne epoxy coating with 0.3% GO is the best.
  • SUN Xiangxin, ZHANG Hua, WANG Zilong, DOU Binlin, ZHANG Guanhua
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10104-10110. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.013
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    In order to investigate the effect of metal foam filling rate on the heat transfer mechanism of phase change materials during melting, a semi-cylinder heat storage device was designed and built. Three kinds of composite phase change materials with filling rate of 0.43%, 1.28% and 2.15% were prepared. The effects of filling rate on temperature distribution, liquid phase ratio, heat conduction and convective heat transfer intensity and heat storage properties of the composite phase change materials were studied experimentally. The experimental results show that the melting time of PCM decreases with the increase of copper foam filling rate. When the filling rate is 0.43%, the natural convection accounts for 68% of the melting process, and when the filling rate is 2.15%, the natural convection accounts for 17%. When the filling rate of copper foam is 0.86%, the heat storage and heat storage rate are 0.96% higher than that of pure paraffin, and the composite phase change heat storage material has better heat storage performance.
  • LI Yue, XIAO Xiaobing, CAI Yongxiang, ZHANG Ziyan, LU Caijiang
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10111-10115. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.014
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    At present, lightning strike fault has become one of the main faults of power lines. 8/20 μs lightning current is a typical impulse current waveform in power system experiment. In this paper, we analyze the magnetoelectric response of FeGa/PZT cylinder composite under 8/20 μs lightning current by using the finite element simulation software COMSOL. This work provides a theoretical analysis basis for the application of magnetoelectric composites in the field of lightning measurement. In the simulation, the model of FeGa/PZT cylindrical magnetoelectric composite is established by using two-dimensional axisymmetric structure. Firstly, the magnetoelectric effect of composites under sinusoidal excitation is simulated. It is found that the main vibration mode of the structure is first-order longitudinal wave vibration, and the frequency is 100.36 kHz. Secondly, the double exponential function model is used to simulate 8/20 μs lightning current. And the transient magnetoelectric response of the FeGa/PZT cylinder composite is simulated in detail. The results show that the output voltage of FeGa/PZT composite can effectively follow 8/20 μs lightning current variation. However, the damped oscillation is carried out at the frequency of 100.36 kHz. In the measurement range of 0.5 A-10 kA, the sensitivity of FeGa/PZT magnetoelectric composite to 8/20 μs lightning current amplitude reaches 1.8 mV/A, and the linearity is 98.55%. The above results show that FeGa/PZT composite has a good application prospect in the field of lightning current measurement.
  • CUI Yanan, DU Chunxiao, GUO Lidian
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10116-10121. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.015
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    In order to explore the feasibility of waste oil as regeneration agent, the regeneration effect of XT-1 regeneration agent and waste oil on aged asphalt was compared, the regeneration effect was evaluated from the experimental point of view, and the regeneration mechanism was studied. In this study, 90# asphalt was used to prepare aging asphalt by laboratory simulation. The aging methods were composite ultraviolet aging and composite water aging. The rheological properties of recycled asphalt were evaluated by dynamic shear rheological (DSR) test and bending beam rheological (BBR) test. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to study the regeneration mechanism of asphalt through the change of microscopic mechanical indexes. In DSR test, the improved rutting factor G*/(sinδ) 9 and fatigue factor G*·sinδ show that with the increase of recycled agent and waste oil content, the rheological properties of recycled asphalt can be improved, and waste oil can more effectively improve the rutting resistance and fatigue resistance of aged asphalt. In the BBR test, it can also be found that the appropriate dosage of XT-1 regenerator and waste oil can better improve the low-temperature performance of aged asphalt, and the improvement effect of waste oil is more obvious. The two indexes of DMT modulus and adhesion force in AFM test show that waste oil has better recovery effect on the viscoelastic properties of recycled asphalt.
  • CAO Feng, QIAO Hongxia, LI Shuangying, LA Shiren, SHAO Yafei
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10122-10129. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.016
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    Magnesium oxychloride cement has good salt corrosion resistance, but its poor water resistance limits its universal application in salt lakes and saline soil areas. In order to improve the water resistance of magnesium oxychloride cement mortar (MOCM), the acrylic acid emulsion (AE) and highland barley straw ash (HBSA) were mixed into MOCM in a single and compound blending way respectively. The softening coefficient was used to characterize the water resistance of MOCM. The pore structure of MOCM was analyzed by gas adsorption technology, and the microstructure of MOCM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), so as to reveal the mechanism of AE and HBSA affecting the water resistance of MOCM. The results show that the water resistance of MOCM increases significantly when 1% AE is added alone, but its mechanical properties decrease significantly. The water resistance of MOCM mixed with 1% AE and 15% HBSA is 18.43% higher than that without mixing, and the mechanical properties are the highest. AE is added into MOCM to form a magnesium acrylic gel, which effectively fill the pores, increase the density of the structure, and improve the water resistance. However, it inhibits the formation of 5-phase crystals and significantly decreases the mechanical properties. The addition of HBSA into MOCM results in the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel, filling the harmful pores between the 5-phase crystal and solid particles, optimizing the pore structure and improving the mechanical properties and water resistance of MOCM.
  • CHENG Peixue, MA Xun, LI Wei, LIU Jiannan, LIU Ping, WANG Jingjing, CHEN Tiantian, YANG Xu, TENG Haisen
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10130-10136. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.017
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    Titanium-based metals are widely used in the field of oral implantation due to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. But titanium-based metals themselves do not have antibacterial properties. In order to improve the antibacterial properties of titanium implant surfaces, this paper uses magnetron sputtering technology to prepare Ti-Cu nanocomposite coating on pure Ti surface. And the microscopic morphology, roughness and hydrophobicity of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and interfacial tension measuring instrument. CCK-8 method was used to detect the cytotoxicity of the material. The samples were co-cultured with Fn to test their antibacterial properties. The results show that the Cu-loaded composite coating is successfully deposited on the surface of the Ti sheet, and with the increase of nano-Cu content, the surface roughness and water contact angle of the samples both increase. The Ti-Cu nanocomposite coating showed no cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblasts and met the biosafety standard. The results of antibacterial experiments show that with the increase of nano-Cu content, the antibacterial effect of the coating is getting better and better. In conclusion, the Ti-Cu nanocomposite coating can effectively inhibit the growth of Fn, and is expected to improve the antibacterial properties of titanium implants, which lays an experimental foundation for its wide application in the fields of bone defect repair and oral implantation.
  • ZHANG Hong, HE Dandan, WANG Jiuling, ZHANG Yupeng, YUE Chen, ZHANG Wenbo
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10137-10145. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.018
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    A novel KOH-Fe/Zn biochar (KOH-Fe/Zn-BC) was prepared for tetracycline removal using KOH activation and Fe/Zn modification. The chemical, morphological and structural characteristics of the biochar were characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDS, N2 adsorption isotherms and XPS. EDS images showed that comparing the elemental distribution on the surface of the material before and after adsorption, the elemental content of Si, Fe and Zn decreased, which was consistent with the results of XPS analysis that these elements interacted with TC molecules. BET results showed that KOH-Fe/Zn-BC reached a specific surface area of 191.47 m2/g. The adsorbent formed a pseudo-secondary kinetic and Langmuir isotherm adsorption process even under the interference of external ions and pH. The adsorption mechanism of KOH-Fe/Zn-BC was evaluated and attributed to the synergistic effects of electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding interactions, and physical and chemical adsorption. The results of the study provide a theoretical basis for the removal of tetracycline from water by municipal sludge biochar.
  • WANG Yiyi, ZHU Huaze, LIU Xinxin
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10146-10156. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.019
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    The rapid development of nanotechnology has increased the possibility of nanoparticles coming into contact with humans and the environment, bringing risks to biological and environmental safety. Nanoparticles can reach the alveolar surface through respiration, so it is necessary to explore the interaction between nanoparticles and phospholipid molecules in the pulmonary surfactant. The surface pressure-mean molecular area (π-A) isotherms, surface pressure-time (Δπ-t) curves, compression-expansion curves and oscillation curves of oleic acid covered Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (OA-Fe3O4 MNPs) and phosphatidylglycerole (DPPG) at the air-water interface were measured by Langmuir technique, and the surface morphology characteristics of DPPG monolayers were monitored by Brewster angle microscope (BAM). The results showed that the π-A isotherms moved to the direction of the increase of the molecular area with the increase of the content of OA-Fe3O4 MNPs. OA-Fe3O4 MNPs formed complex with DPPG molecules, resulting in a significant increase in the surface pressure and a decrease in the compression modulus (CS-1) of the monolayer. Compared with pure DPPG monolayer, the surface pressure of monolayer decreased obviously within one hour due to the existence of OA-Fe3O4 MNPs. The expansion curve of DPPG monolayer showed obvious hysteresis with the increase of OA-Fe3O4 MNPs. When the surface pressure is 25 mN/m, DPPG monolayers showed nonlinear response to sinusoidal strain disturbance of 5% of molecular area. OA-Fe3O4 MNPs did not change the viscoelastic characteristics and the time scale of relaxation process of DPPG monolayers. BAM images supported the above results.
  • ZHANG Jing, LIU Xiujun, WANG Ruichen, WANG Shuaida
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10157-10161. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.020
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    Shape memory polymer with 4D printing is a smart material that can change the shape of an object over time based on 3D printing. In this work, polyester acrylates were exploited to improve the performance of shape memory based on acrylate, and printed samples with shape memory polymer of polyester acrytate/epoxy acrylate were prepared. The effects of prepolymer ratio and diluent amount on shape memory and mechanical properties were investigated systematically. The results demonstrated that when polyester acrytate/bisphenol A epoxy acrylate was 1∶2, the maximum tensile strength was 30.5 MPa and elastic modulus was 286.38 MPa. While the prepolymer ratio was 1∶2 and the diluent mass fraction was 50 wt%, the shape memory polymer maintained a stable shape recovery rate of 99.3%-99.8% under the 14-folding experiments of water bath. The 4D printed samples recovered to 180° in 4 s at 85 ℃ water bath temperature, showing good performance of shape memory.
  • LIU Jianke, XU Rongkai, XIE Xin, CAO Wenbin
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10162-10166. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.021
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    Obtained by chemical precipitation, γ-Al2O3:Eu3+ luminescent powder was prepared and its structure and luminescent properties were analyzed. It is found that: (1) doping Eu3+ inhibits the crystallization of alumina. The band gap width of γ-Al2O3 decreases with the increase of doping concentration. The optimum Eu3+ doping concentration is 4 mol%. As the concentration continues to increase, quenching occurs, which decreases the luminescence intensity; (2) At 396 monitoring wavelengths, the strongest emission peak is about 618 nm. From the ratio of different emission peaks, in γ-Al2O3 lattices, most of the positions occupied by Eu3+ doping are asymmetric; (3) For Cr3+ impurities in pure alumina powder, the emission peak appears when doped, but due to the small amount, it coincides with the emission peak of Eu3+ and only has a very low emission peak at 695 nm.
  • ZHANG Yajun, YANG Yin, CHEN Xiao
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10167-10179. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.022
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    Steel slag particles with high hardness, high modulus and certain cementitious activity can be used as solidified soil material. The influence of steel slag on soil mechanics, stability and solidification mechanism are not clear. In this paper, the effects of steel slag content and steel slag particle size on soil California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value, water absorption, expansion rate and compressive strength were studied. By calculating the comprehensive, physical and chemical effects index of steel slag on soil modification, the solidification mechanism of steel slag on soil was described. In addition, XRD, IR and SEM - EDS were used to reveal the mechanism of steel slag on soil chemical modification. The results show that steel slag have significant physical and chemical modification effects on soil, and the mechanical and stability properties of soil increase with the increase of steel slag content, while decrease with the increase of steel slag particle size. When steel slag content is 8%, CBR value and 4d unconfined compressive strength (UCS) increase by 1014.4% and 180.0%, respectively, water absorption and expansion rate decrease by 53.0% and 45.4%, respectively, compare with that of plain soil. The decoupling analysis shows that the physical modification effect of steel slag is much weaker than the chemical modification effect, and the chemical modification effect plays a dominant role in the comprehensive modification effect of steel slag. The 4 d contribution weight of 0-0.6 mm steel slag to chemical modification is 72.2%, while the contribution weight of physical modification is only 27.8%. In addition, with the increase of age, the contribution weight of chemical modification is further increased. At 28 d and 90 d, the contribution weights of 0-0.6 mm steel slag to chemical modification increase to 78.7% and 86.3%, respectively. Microcosmic test results show that hydration and ion exchange reactions occurred after steel slag is added to soil. The C—S—H peak can be found in the XRD test results, and the enhanced vibration peak of the Al3+ cation coordination can be observed in the IR test results. From SEM test results, it can be seen that the floccule C—S—H gelatinous material has significantly fewer pores than plain soil, and its structure becomes more dense, which is consistent with the macroscopic mechanical properties.
  • ZHANG Chunmei, YANG Tingting, LU Guihua, YE Qiuyan, FU Qiuping, LUO Jun, ZHAI Tianliang
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10180-10184. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.023
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    Aerogels have the characteristics of low density, high specific surface area, high porosity, etc., and have broad application prospects in the field of water pollution treatment. CNC/CS aerogels with good aqueous solution stability were prepared by freeze-drying and solid-phase cross-linking technology using natural green polymer materials cellulose nanocrystalline (CNC) and chitosan (CS) as raw materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the appearance of the aerogel, and the adsorption performance of the aerogel to hexavalent chromium ion (Cr(Ⅵ)) in water was investigated by spectrophotometry, and the adsorption results were simulated by pseudo first and second order kinetic fitting. The results showed that the aerogel with 50% CNC content had the best water stability, and the mass residual ratio after shaking for 48 h in deionized water reached 93.8%. The aerogels presented rich honeycomb pore structure, and the adsorption capacity for Cr(Ⅵ) reached up to 67.377 mg/g, and it had a fast adsorption rate for Cr(Ⅵ). When the concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) solution was lower than 60 mg/L, the adsorption equilibrium can be reached within 24 h. The adsorption kinetic fitting results showed that the adsorption behavior of CNC(50%)/CS aerogel to Cr(Ⅵ) conformed to the pseudo second order adsorption kinetic model, indicating that the adsorption process was dominated by chemical adsorption.
  • Process & Technology
  • GUAN Lei, ZHANG Wen, WANG Bing, XIONG Ying
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10185-10189. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.024
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    The diamond-graphene hybrid/composite materials have both the excellent properties of diamond and graphene, and are importantly applied in the fields of energy storage, optoelectronics, and biosensors. In recent years, a lot of researches have been devoted to the formation process of such materials, but the growth mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, nitrogen-doped ultra-nanodiamond-graphene hybrid films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method using small organic molecule diisopropylamine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The micromorphologies and phase compositions of the hybrid films were analyzed in detail by means of SEM, TEM, Raman, and XRD. Combined with the in-situ monitoring of the changes of group species and content during growth by plasma emission spectroscopy (OES), the possible growth mechanism was proposed, which provides a theoretical basis for regulating the microstructure and properties of nitrogen-doped ultra-nanodiamond-graphene hybrid films.
  • XIE Yousen, ZHU Haifeng, LIU Yan, NA Bing, ZHANG Shuaicheng, CHEN Chuanhong
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10190-10195. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.025
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    The separator is an essential part restricting the development of high-performance lithium-ion batteries. High-performance cellulose separators with biodegradability and electrolyte affinity are promising. However, the strong hydrogen bonding between cellulose nanofibers usually leads to the formation of dense membranes rather than ideal porous membranes. In this paper, a different strategy is suggested to prepare a CF&SiO2 separator with a core-shell structure by regulating the morphology of bacterial cellulose (CF&SiO2) composite separators by chemical foaming combined with nano-silica particles hybridization. The CF&SiO2 separator has excellent thermal stability (200 ℃) and high ionic conductivity of 1.44 mS/cm. The coin-cell battery is assembled from LiFePO4 cathode and Li anode exhibited superior cycling stability at 5 C, holding a high specific capacity of 124.7 mAh/g after 300 cycles.
  • ZHOU Houming, ZHOU Jinhu, LIU Gang, CHEN Haoyue
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10196-10202. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.026
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    Si3N4/MoSi2/SiCw (SMC) composite ceramic tool materials with different MoSi2 and SiCw contents were prepared by vacuum hot pressing sintering technology at 1650 ℃. The effects of the content of the binder phase MoSi2 and the reinforcing phase SiCw on the microstructure, mechanical properties and friction and wear properties of Si3N4/MoSi2/SiCw composite ceramic tools were studied. The results show that with the increase of the content of MoSi2 content, the flexural strength of the ceramic tool material increases, the wear resistance decreases gradually, and the wear pattern gradually changes from abrasive wear to adhesive wear. With the increase of the SiCw content, the fracture toughness of the ceramic tool material increases continuously, the wear resistance is significantly improved, and the wear pattern changes from adhesive-abrasive composite wear to abrasive wear. When the content of MoSi2 and SiCw is 10 wt% at the same time, the grain size is smaller, the density of the material is higher, and the bridging and pull-out effects of whiskers are enhanced, achieving the better mechanical properties. At this time, the flexural strength was 888.21 MPa, the fracture toughness was 10.22 MPa·m1/2, and the hardness was 19.17 GPa.
  • WEN Kebin, ZHU Tianxiang, ZHAO Xinluo, SHENG Leimei, AN Kang
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10203-10211. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.027
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    Flexible and wearable biosensors are important for the health monitoring of chronic patients. Buckypaper made of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is flexible, conductive and biocompatible, so it's an ideal electrode material for flexible biosensors. As single-walled carbon nanotube's lack of catalytic activity, it's necessary to modify buckypaper with active materials. In this paper, single-walled carbon nanotube buckypaper and one-step reduced gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide solution are simply vacuum filtered to form a double-layer flexible electrode for the first time. The morphology and structure of the prepared flexible electrode are characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction equipment, ultraviolet spectrophotometer and Raman spectrometer. The results show that gold and graphene oxide are reduced. The size of gold nanoparticles is about 80-100 nm. The reduced graphene oxide is intensively modified by gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical behavior of the flexible electrode for glucose is investigated. This electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for glucose and H2O2, linear relationship in the detection range, and the H2O2 sensitivity is as high as 1 533 μA/(mmol/L·cm2). Thus this work reveals that single-walled carbon nanotube buckypaper is potentially valuable for flexible biosensors.
  • PAN Mengli, OU Hongxiang, XU Jiacheng, XUE Honglai, WENG Yunxuan
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10212-10221. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.028
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    To improve the flame retardant performance of low density polyethylene (LDPE), polydivinyl benzene-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane composites (PDVB-POSS) synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis was used as flame retardant synergistic agent, and intumescent flame retardant LDPE composites were prepared by melt blending. The effects of PDVB-POSS on the flame retardancy and mechanical properties of LDPE composites were studied by various methods. The results showed that when 5.0 wt% PDVB-POSS was added, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) increased to 32.4% and the UL-94 reached V-0. Meanwhile tensile strength reached 17.7 MPa and the elongation at break was 596%. The smoke density test results showed that the smoke emission of the composite decreases after combustion, and the light transmittance increased with the increase of synergist. Raman test and scanning electron microscope confirmed that the graphitization degree and amount of residual carbon were significantly improved after combustion. The results showed that PDVB-POSS can effectively improve the flame retardancy and thermal stability of LDPE composites, and enhance the compatibility between flame retardant and matrix materials.
  • DU Guoyong, YUAN Qiao
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10222-10228. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.029
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    The hydrophilic and oleophobic materials have better separation effect for low concentration of oil-bearing wastewater. Superhydrophilic and underwater superhydrophobic PVDF/polydopamine/diethyltriamine (PVDF/PDA/DETA) membranes were prepared by impregnating hydrophobic PVDF membranes with a certain mass ratio of dopamine hydrochloride (DA)/diethyltriamine (DETA) mixed solution.The modified membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that PDA and DETA had been successfully loaded onto the PVDF membrane surface. The influences of impregnation time and mass ratio of DA to DETA on the surface wettability of the modified membrane were investigated, and the pure water flux, oil-water separation efficiency, repeat utilization rate and stability of the modified membrane were tested. The results showed that when the impregnation time was 12 h and the mass ratio of DA to DETA was 1∶1, the modified membranes had the best superhydrophilic and underwater superhydrophobic properties.The contact angle of underwater diesel oil and n-hexane reached 146.1°and 151.6°, respectively. Compared with the pristine PVDF membranes, the pure water flux increased by 12.67 times, showing excellent separation performance for various oil-water mixtures. After 5 times of oil-water separation, the separation efficiency can still reach over 95%. After soaked in solutions with different pH values for 12 h, the contact angle of underwater diesel was still greater than 140°, showing excellent reusable performance and stability.
  • HAO Yunhong, SUN Hao, QIN Lida, WU Zhuoxuan, CI Tianyi, GUO Xiaomei
    Jorunal of Functional Materials. 2022, 53(10): 10229-10236. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-9731.2022.10.030
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    With cement, fly ash, quartz powder and quartz sand as raw materials and H2O2 solution as foaming agent, the foamed concrete with density grade A12 was prepared by adopting the method of chemical foaming. First, the favourable arrange of water to binder ratio, fly ash replacement as well as micro-aggregate amount of admixture was found by single factor experiment. At the same time, we designed the orthogonal test optimization of the materials proportion, and made use of Range Method to analyze the effects on material compressive strength, rupture strength and heat conductivity coefficient caused by various factors to establish the relation model between its basic mechanical properties and main influence factors. Finally, we adopted scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the micro-structure of fly ash with different micro-aggregate amount of admixture, analyzing the reason for increasing material strength. The experiment results showed that the appropriate range for the micro-aggregate to increase fly ash foamed concrete ratio were water to binder ratio of 0.4-0.5, fly ash replacement of 30%-50% and micro-aggregate replacement of 60%-80%, respectively. The primary and secondary relationship of influencing factors for the micro-aggregate to increase fly ash foamed concrete 3 d compressive strength was water to binder ratio > fly ash replacement > micro-aggregate replacement > MP-I replacement > water reducing agent replacement. The primary and secondary relationship of 7 d and 28 d compressive strength was water to binder ratio > micro-aggregate replacement > fly ash replacement > MP-I replacement > water reducing agent replacement. The primary and secondary relationship of 28d breaking strength was water to binder ratio > fly ash replacement > MP-I replacement > micro-aggregate replacement > water reducing agent replacement. The primary and secondary relationship of heat conductivity coefficient was water to binder ratio > fly ash replacement > micro-aggregate replacement > water reducing agent replacement > MP-I replacement. The optimum mixture ratio were water to binder ratio 0.5, fly ash replacement 40%, micro-aggregate replacement 70%, MP-I replacement 0.1%, water reducing agent replacement 0.8%, 28d compressive strength 19.05 MPa, 28 d breaking strength 2.66 MPa and heat conductivity coefficient 0.3615 W/(m·K), respectively.